02 Oct 2020
Chemistry Zumdahl, 7 ed. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York
Фосфор валентности 5 присоединяет по 4 атома Кислорода. Образуются следующие соединения (pages 914-918, 144 of a chemical textbook).
Оксид Фосфора (V) – P4O10
Метафосфорная кислота – (HPO3)4
Ортофосфорная кислота – H3PO4
Каждый атом фосфора заключен в Тетрайдер из 4 атомов Кислорода в этих соединениях. Реакция присоединения воды к Оксиду Фосфора (V) идет в несколько ступеней. Как трехосновная – Фосфорная Кислота относиться к слабым кислотам.
Фосфорная Кислота взаимодействует только с металлами расположенными в электрохимическом ряду напряжений левее вордорода (pages 333 – 335 of a chemical textbook).
K Ca Na Mg Al Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb (H2) Cu Hg Ag Pt Au
Соли Фосфорной Кислоты называются Фосфатами. В зависимости от количества добавленного к раствору Фосфорной Кислоты основания в ее молекулах могут заместиться металлами один, два или все три атома Водорода. Если все атомы Водорода замещены металлом, то соль называется просто Фосфатом.
Дигидрофосфаты: NaH2PO4, Ca(H2PO4)2, NH4H2PO4;
Гидрофосфаты: Na2HPO4, CaHPO4, (NH4)2HPO4;
Фосфаты: Na3PO4, Ca3(PO4)2.
Дигидрофосфаты всех металлов хорошо растворимы в воде. Фосфаты не растворимы в воде. Только Фосфаты щелочных металлов растворимы в воде. Все нерастворимые в воде Фосфаты растворяются при приливании сильных кислот. В этот момент они переходят в Дигидрофосфаты.
Ca3(PO4)2 + 4HNO3 = Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2Ca(NO3)2.
Реактивом на йоны PO43- служит Нитрат Серебра. При прибавлении его к раствору содержащему эти йоны,
образуется остаток фосфата серебра (pages 724 in textbook):
PO43- + 3Ag1+ = Ag3PO4.
Фосфат серебра ярко-желтого цвета и как все фосфаты, растворяется при добавлении раствора сильной кислоты.
Получаемые в промышленности ортофосфаты и метафосфаты используются в качестве фосфорных удобрений.
Chemistry Zumdahl, 7 ed. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York
(pages 159, 717, 720 of a chemical textbook)
Какие химические элементы замещают Hydroxylapatite в эмали зубов для борьбы с кариесом?
Вследствии высокой химической активности фосфор в свободном виде в природе не встречается. В земной коре он содержиться только в виде солей ортофосфорной кислоты, преимущественно в виде Phosphate Калия Ca3(PO4)2.
В виде соединения Hydroxylapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH фосфор входит в состав костной ткани человека и животных. Эта соль придает скелету твердость и обеспечивает до 50% состава ткани человека и до 70% веса.
Hydroxylapatite is the hydroxyl endmember of the complex apatite group. The OH− ion can be replaced by fluoride, chloride or carbonate, producing fluorapatite or chlorapatite. It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system.
В медицине синтетический Hydroxylapatite используется как наполнитель, замещающий часть утеренной кости и как покрытие инплантов способствующее нарастанию новой кости.
Так же соединения Фосфора входят в состав мышечной и нервной ткани человека и животных. Работа мозга, сокращения мышц связаны с химическим превращениями этих соединений. Фосфор играет исключительно большую роль во всех жизненных процессах.
Источником фосфора для человека и животных является растительная пища. Растения могут произростать при наличии фосфора в почве. В почву фосфор попадает при гниении остатков растений и животных. Таким образом в природе происходит кругооборот Фосфора. В круговороте Фосфора посредниками между почвой и растениями выступают бактерии. Фосфоробактерии превращают органические соединения фосфора, которые не подходят для растений в неорганические – Phosphate.
При интенсивном сельском хозяйстве необходимо вносить в почву навоз и искусственные (минеральные) удобрения.
В нашем Моде в Майнкрафте Hydroxylapatite можно получить из Костей Скелетов или белого красителя.
Fluoride, fluorapatite – Ca5(PO4)3F, and calcium fluoride CaF2.
Chemistry Zumdahl, 7 ed. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York
Практическое задание: Найдите глину, разбавте водой до большей пластичности и слепитье маленькую фигурку Голема. Высушите на солнце.Найдите осколок красного кирпича рассмотрите его внимательно, попробуйте отбить кусочек с помощью молотка.
Какая разница между глиной высушенной на солнце и осколком кирмича?
(pages 448-449 of a chemical textbook)
Ceramics made from clays and hardened by firing at high temperatures. Ceramics are nonmetallic strong materials, brittle, resistant to heat and attack by chemicals.
White clays consists from tiny thin platelets Kaolinite with formula Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
В состав Kaolinite входят aluminum_oxide, silicon_dioxide, hydroxide. При формировании Kaolinite происходили процессы при участии Carbon dioxide and water.
When dry, the platelets cling together; when water is presents, they can slide over one another, giving clay its plasticity.
Имеют сруктуру похожую на слои стекла разделенные слоями Оксида Аллюминия и hydroxide. При повышении температуры Kaolinite теряет воду и образует землистые массы с мелкими шестигранными кристаллами.
В каком году и в какой стране discovery of glazing?
О роли атомов Алюминия в Рубинах и Лазерной техники смотрите сатью – SUCROSE.
Половина всего добываемого Kaolinite используется в производстве бумаги для мелования и в качестве наполнителя.
В керамической промышленности для создания глазури.
В медицине керамику используют для создания искусственных заменителей имплантантов костей.
Для каких “high-tech” технологий в наше время применяется керамика?
Кирпичь красный и прочный, глина коричневая и более хрупкая.
About 3000 b.c. in Egypt.
Jet and automobile engines and rockets.
Launched the first rental of electric scooters in La Manga – Spain.
This is how internal combustion engines are constructed, which lead to the development of tanks, cars, river and sea vessels, helicopters and airplanes. This is the first horizontal graph in our system – thermostatics or static processes, the variable parameter in which is Time.
And geometric and topological structures which are physical devices of the engine type are reflected in the second horizontal graph – Resilience.
Together they form dynamic or periodic processes. So, for example, in each engine there is a shaft that rotates with a certain period.
Such important devices as a gyroscope and magnetic compass help many hundreds of years in navigating to the surface of the land without reference points. In particular for missiles and submarines. Physical quantities for these important devices are located in the third horizontal graph – Magnetostatics.
Processes in magneto-elastic systems are widely used to record acoustic signals. Ultrasounds help orientations in the dark to bats and dolphins. Submarines also use ultrasound instruments to determine targets and navigate in the dark.
Such systems as electric lighting, electric heaters, welding machines can just be symbolically described with the help of physical quantities from the fourth horizontal graph – Electrostatics.
The third and fourth graphs form – Electrodynamics, which describes such devices as telegraph, radio, television, electric motors, trolleys, electric cars, railway electric locomotives, electric milking machines, separators, incubators, cinematographers.
The next fifth horizontal graph is Slabostatika. These phenomena were first studied in Russia by I.V. Kurchatov for the purpose of creating a nuclear uranium-graphite reactor. Known works of Kurchatov in the field of Electro-Weak Interaction (Fourth and Fifth Count together).
Modern scientists offer many hypotheses based on the results of the study of the strong interaction of matter. Since all the results are indirect, it is possible to admit many different versions of theories. Often such theories are associated with the great unification of all laws into one general formula or mathematical theory. The sixth column – Strongstatics relies on the achievements of modern nuclear physics. Such a physical phenomenon as superfluidity is usually explained through a strong interaction.
The fifth and sixth graphs form a weakly-strong interaction or chromodynamics.
Our systems in Maincraft will consist of a set of blocks. On the contiguous faces physical processes can occur. A complete final finished physical structure will occupy exactly one block. Thus, for crafting three-dimensional machines, project Blue-print templates and a three-dimensional imagination, like those of modern engineers and artists, will be required.
A set of blocks that have a certain Form and physical properties (Physical laws).
As a result, some machines can get mobility, like Mobs.
In Spain in Murcia there was a Meetup about the use of a new language – Kotlin. It developed by the Russian company JetBrain. The language is intended for large projects on Java, but it is more convenient than Java itself to use.
In the photo you can see an illustration from our blog – a mod for Minecraft, written on Kotlin for the study of Chemistry and Physics.
Chemistry Zumdahl, 7 ed. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York
(page 970 of a chemical textbook)
What color is the gem of Alexandrite?
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate (page 448 of a chemical textbook) with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. Что соответствует 14 % оксида бериллия, 19 % оксида алюминия, 67 % silicon dioxide. Well-known varieties of beryl include emerald and aquamarine.
What structure is formed by the atoms of silicon oxide and Aluminum oxide in Aluminosilicates?
In Minecraft it can be obtained from shardPrismarine and Emerald. ShardPrismarine can be obtained only in Ocean Monument in the Deep Ocean biome. Because an Ocean Monument is completely underwater, you will need to drink a Potion of Water Breathing if you want to explore the temple. Otherwise, you will run out of air and die.
Emerald is a kind of Beryl with an admixture of Chromium and Vanadium, which change the Apple-Green color of Noble Berel to a bright dense green.
Accordingly, in Chemical Diazolver from Emerald you can get Beryl, Chromium, Vanadium.
Aquamarine is a bluish-green color (the colors of sea water). For the production of aquamarine coloring, irradiation of ordinary beryl with radioactive cobalt is often used. In this way, aquamarines called Maxixe of bright blue unnatural color, which pale with time, are obtained. In this case, as a result of the reduction of trivalent iron, a color change occurs, for example, from a greenish-blue to a blue one.
The cultivation of real Artificial Aquamarine is very expensive, so for such stones, fakes are made from other less expensive minerals.
Therefore, in our Minecraft Mod, the legendary underwater mineral shardPrismarine in Chemical dissolver is decomposed into beryl and Cobalt_aluminate, which indicates an artificial Aquamarine (which is very expensive to make) or Maxixe (which pales with time).
Beryl ore serves as a source for the production of pure beryllium (page 303, 360, 367, 407, 876, 885-886 of a chemical textbook) and alloys based on it. These substances have unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, they are used in a rare and expensive technique.
What is the atomic radius of Beryllium?
Beryl bronze makes it possible to produce springs that remain resilient to the temperature of red heat and can withstand billions of load cycles.
Used in radiotechnics.
Beryllium oxide in a mixture with uranium is a very effective nuclear fuel.
In laser technology for the manufacture of solid-state emitters.
For the production of thermal screens and guidance systems.
Beryllium hydride is a rocket fuel.
Beryllium oxide serves as a high-temperature insulator.
Electrodynamic elements and filters are used in acoustics.
In Minecraft from Beryl containing materials it is possible to make armor unique in price and properties, as well as tools for mining.
On daylight – green-blue, at midnight – reddish color.
Chemistry Zumdahl, 7 ed. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York
(pages 1008-1010 of a chemical textbook).
Cucurbitacin is any of a class of biochemical compounds that some plants—notably members of the family Cucurbitaceae, which includes the common pumpkins and gourds—produce and which function as a defence against herbivores. Cucurbitacins are chemically classified as steroids, formally derived from cucurbitane, a triterpene hydrocarbon—specifically, from the unsaturated variant cucurbita-5-ene, or 19-(10→9β)-abeo-10α-lanost-5-ene. They often occur as glycosides.
Cucurbitane — quite strongly oxidized aglycons and glycosides. Cycles and side chains contain many oxygen-containing functional groups.
Glycosides are organic compounds, the molecules of which consist of two parts: a carbohydrate (pyranoside or furanoside) residue and a non-carbohydrate fragment (so-called aglycone). As glycosides in a more general sense, carbohydrates consisting of two or more monosaccharide residues can be considered. Advantageously crystalline, less often amorphous substances, readily soluble in water and alcohol.
Although their splitting into sugars and aglikones is very easy, there are also known glycosides (saponins) that do not decompose even with dilute acids (H2SO4) during prolonged heating. When glycosides are digested with enzymes, a certain selectivity is observed; only a certain enzyme is able to decompose this or that glycoside.
Melon plants and other plants of the family Cucurbitaceae contain saponins of the triterpenic series, which have a bitter, unpleasant taste. The sapogenins of these saponins are cucurbitacin.
Triterpenic saponins contain 30 carbon atoms and are distinguished by a wide variety of chemical structures (at least 30 groups are distinguished among triterpenoids.Tetracyclic saponins (including Cucurbitan) contain 4 carbon rings in the aglycone structure.
Cucurbitacins are known for their taste properties. Glucosides are usually tasteless, but can have a sweet taste (for example, mogrosides from Sirattia grosvenori). Aglikons are very bitter, perform the function of repellents (although some insects, adapting, use them as food attractants and stimulants).
Cucurbitacins are found in a number of other plant families, in several genera of fungi and in the marine mollusk. Cucurbitacins have a wide range of biological properties (antitumor, contraceptive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anthelmintic, etc.) However, because of their nonspecific toxicity in traditional medicine, they have limited application.
Saponins have historically been understood to be plant-derived, but they have also been isolated from marine organisms such as sea cucumber.Saponins are indeed found in many plants, and derive their name from the soapwort plant (genus Saponaria, family Caryophyllaceae), the root of which was used historically as a soap. Saponins are also found in the botanical family Sapindaceae, with its defining genus Sapindus (soapberry or soapnut), and in the closely related families Aceraceae (maples) and Hippocastanaceae (horse chestnuts; ref. needed). It is also found heavily in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Gynostemma, Cucurbitaceae) in a form called gypenosides, and ginseng or red ginseng (Panax, Araliaceae) in a form called ginsenosides. Within these families, this class of chemical compounds is found in various parts of the plant: leaves, stems, roots, bulbs, blossom and fruit.
Mate (Spanish, Russian-Spanish dictionaries sometimes have an accent on the first syllable due to pronunciation in Spanish) – a tonic drink with a high content of caffeine, prepared from dried crushed leaves and young shoots of holly Paraguayan (Ilex paraguariensis). An integral part of the culture of Argentina and a number of adjacent countries in South America.
Usually, mate is drunk from the calabash, a special “bombilla”, with the help of a tubule of “bombilla”(in Spanish). The Bombilla has a flattened mouthpiece at the top and ends with a flask-shaped strainer that serves as a filter that does not let the grass particles into the mouth.
The tonic and adaptogenic effect of Paradise Paraguayan – Yerba Mate is due to a unique combination of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine) and triterpene saponins.
Caffeine (pages 93-95 of a chemical textbook) increases mental and physical performance, relieves fatigue, reduces the need for sleep. The mechanism of action of caffeine is associated with a complex effect on the content of intracellular calcium, adenosine receptors and phosphodiesterase, which destroys cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). Caffeine inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase and thus increases the concentration of cAMP in the tissues of the brain, heart and other organs. As a result, an increase in the content of the noradrenaline mediator is observed in some parts of the brain, which leads to an increase in the activity of the sympathetic part of the vegetative nervous system. More caffeine stimulates the cerebral cortex, which is associated with its psycho-stimulating effect.
In Paduba Paraguayan high content of triterpene saponins was detected, they were called Mate-saponins. There are more than five of them, but at the basis of all is ursulic acid, they differ only in the sequence of sugars in the carbohydrate part of the molecule.
Ursolic acid is found no less than in a hundred plants, including cowberry ordinary, cranberry marsh, and is found both in the form of glycosides, and free aglikona. Its antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiviral, cytotoxic, antitumor properties are known.
By itself, caffeine (Matein) poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier (the barrier between the circulatory and central nervous systems), the reason for this peculiarity of the chemical structure of matter. Modern pharmacologists note that saponins are able, when combined with other substances, to increase their bioavailability (the fraction of the substance that got into the blood in% of the total amount of the substance administered). Saponins act as natural emulsifiers. In addition to providing more complete extraction (extraction) of insoluble and poorly soluble in water substances from raw materials, by lowering the surface tension at the interface of immiscible phases (hydrophobic substance and water); saponins, interacting with the basal membrane, significantly increase the delivery of substances into the cells and easier penetration of caffeine (theobromine, theophylline) into the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier.
Side effects observed with the use of caffeine-containing beverages are due to the fact that in order to achieve a pronounced tonic, psycho-stimulating effect, the dose of caffeine should be very high, since caffeine does not penetrate well into the central nervous system. As a result, there is a marked peripheral effect of caffeine on the body, manifested by tachycardia, muscle tremor.
For comparison, in the qualitative Yerba Mate, the caffeine content varies from 0.5 to 1.2%, in the coffee fruit its content is 1.0 – 2.7%, in the leaves of the Chinese tea 1.7-7.2%, and in seeds of Guarana, the content of caffeine reaches 8.0%.
Yerba Mate differs in that it has a “directed” tonic effect. If the caffeine content is 2-3 times less than, for example, in Chinese tea, Paradise Paraguay – Yerba Mate has a more pronounced and softer toning effect, because due to the presence of saponins, caffeine is easier to penetrate and affect the brain regions, this is a smaller dose. A softer action can also be explained by the fact that other representatives of purine alkaloids are present in the water extract – these are theobromine and theophylline, which are contained in a smaller amount, but also have a tonic effect. Both substances are very poorly soluble in water: theophylline 1: 120, theobromine 1: 300. As noted earlier, saponins are surfactants, thereby increasing the extraction of hydrophobic substances in an aqueous solution, among which are theobromine, theophylline, many water-insoluble vitamins, etc.
Saponins in themselves also exert a tonic effect, easily penetrating the central nervous system, but the mechanism of their action is not fully understood, as in the case of Ginseng and Aralia and psilocybin.
All active substances responsible for the manifestation of tonic action are individually widely represented in other plants, but are not found anywhere else in Paraguay (Yerba Mate). The advantage of Yerba Mate is that the purine alkaloids and saponins included in its composition potentiate (intensify) the effect of each other, which leads to a more pronounced toning effect than when they are used separately.
Water extraction from the Paradise Paraguayan grass – Yerba Mate causes a decrease in hunger and appetite. This is confirmed by a number of studies and is widely used in comprehensive weight loss programs in the countries of the European Union and the United States. As mentioned above, caffeine inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase and thus increases the concentration of cAMP in the brain tissues. As a result, an increase in the content of the mediator of norepinephrine is observed in some parts of the brain. An increase in the content of norepinephrine in the center of the hunger located in the lateral part of the hypothalamus and in which a high density of noradrenergic synapses is noted causes oppression of its activity, so that hunger and appetite decrease. And as a consequence, the need for food decreases.
Depression (from Latin depressio – suppression, oppression) is a mental disorder that has a significant negative impact on social adaptation and quality of life and is characterized by a pathological mood decrease (hypotomy) with a pessimistic assessment of oneself and one’s position in the surrounding reality, inhibition of intellectual and motor activity, decreased motivation and somatovegetative disorders. According to the biochemical theory of depression, in this disease there is a decreased content of monoamines – norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain, as well as the sensitivity of receptors perceiving the effects of these neurotransmitters.
In the countries of the European Union (mainly France, Germany, Great Britain), where Paradise Paraguayan – Yerba Mate is regarded as a medicinal plant and has its own regulatory documentation, one of the main recommended uses of Yerba Mate is the prevention and treatment of depression.
The combination of the psychostimulating effect of purine alkaloids and the antineuritic effect of B group vitamins, which ensure normal metabolism of the cells of the nervous system, restores the normal life activity of neurons after the impact of stress factors, which positively affects the overcoming of depression.
A number of scientists state the ability of water extraction of Paduba Paraguayan – Yerba Mate in vitro to inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that involves deamination of noradrenaline, serotonin, which leads to their inactivation. (With the participation of these suppository-programs, adrenaline generation occurs). Inhibition of the activity of this enzyme leads to an increase in the content of noradrenaline and serotonin in the brain, which in turn eliminates the biochemical cause of depression.
The regular use of the drink Yerba Mate provides a daily requirement of the organism in the vitamins of group B, irreplaceable for the work of the nervous system. Due to this, the consumption of Yerba Mate is recommended for the prevention and treatment of various kinds of depression and nervous disorders.
Flavonoids, vitamins, purine alkaloids that are part of the Paradise Paradise Paradise – Yerba Mate, have a positive effect on the prevention of hypertension. In addition to the fact that flavonoids directly inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which is the main link in the development of hypertensive disease, Yerba Mate intensifies the release of the NO-endothelial vasodilator. Studies were conducted at the University of Rio Grande in Brazil to study the endothelium-dependent vasodilator activity of the aquatic extract of Paduba Paraguayan-Yerba Mate. The study proved that the water extract of Yerba Mate is able to significantly inhibit vasoconstriction caused by the administration of methoxamine (a potent vasoconstrictor). In addition, due to the diuretic effect, Yerba Mate helps to reduce the volume of circulating fluid, which directly affects the blood pressure.
Due to the flavonoids contained in Paraguay – Yerba Mata, the water extract can be used as a prophylactic for ischemic heart disease (CHD). Flavonoids have an antioxidant effect, protecting the myocardium from the effects of free radicals. Scientists of the National University de La Plata in Buenos Aires, Rep. Argentina found that the water extract of Yerba Mate is able to block the nitrogen-oxide mechanism of development of ischemia.
Currently, doctors have proved that stress has a serious impact on the occurrence and development of various diseases. The key role of stress in the occurrence of diseases of the cardiovascular system is noted, where stress is one of the main risk factors (especially in the development of IHD).
Water extract Yerba Mate thanks to the content of alkaloids, saponins, trace elements, and most importantly the high content of vitamins of group B, can positively influence the state of the nervous system, relieving stress, depression. Thus, it is possible to break the “vicious circle” of IHD development.
The wide application of Paduba Paraguayan – Yerba Mate in weight loss programs is due to its complex effect on several systems of the body. As noted above, as a result of suppressing the activity of the hunger center in the hypothalamus, Yerba Mate causes a decrease in hunger and appetite. Due to the high content of vitamins, which actively participate in lipid, protein, carbohydrate metabolism, Yerba Mate helps to increase metabolism (metabolism), in particular, the breakdown of adipose tissue (lipolysis). And due to moderate diuretic activity, the aquatic extract of Paduba Paraguayan – Yerba Mate causes an increase in fluid excretion, which in turn speeds up the withdrawal of metabolites formed as a result of lipolysis.
In Yerba Mate, flavonoids and vitamin C are present in large numbers. Flavonoids have the property of reducing the fragility of the blood capillaries (angioprotective action). Vitamin C promotes proper metabolism, regulates redox processes in the body, strengthens the walls of capillaries, prevents the onset of atherosclerosis. It is established that vitamin C lowers the level of cholesterol and lipoproteins in the blood, reduces the permeability of capillaries.
An interesting effect on the atherosclerotic process is the natural combination of flavonoids, vitamin C and caffeine. This combination has a positive regulatory effect on one of the main links in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis – cholesterol metabolism, showing a hypocholesteric effect.
However, flavonoids in themselves are able to inhibit lipid peroxidation and lower LDL (low density lipoproteins), as evidenced by several studies at the University of Louis Pasteur, the University of Montreal, and the National University of Montevideo.
The inhibition of the phosphodiesterase enzyme in smooth muscle cells, due to the theophylline alkaloid and to a lesser extent caffeine, leads to accumulation in cAMP cells and a decrease in intracellular calcium concentration, resulting in a decrease in the activity of kinases of myosin light chains in cells and the interaction of actin and myosin. This leads to relaxation of the smooth muscles of the internal organs, including bronchi (spasmolytic action). Similarly, purine alkaloids act on the smooth muscles of blood vessels, causing the vessels to expand, resulting in a decrease in blood pressure.
When acting on the respiratory system, in addition to bronchodilator, there is also an increase in mucociliary clearance, a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance, stimulation of the respiratory center (due to the analeptic effect of caffeine), and improvement in contractions of the respiratory muscles (intercostal and diaphragmatic).
In studies of the influence of the water extraction of Paduba Paraguayan-Yerba Mate on the human immune system, an increase in the general resistance of the organism to infectious diseases was noted. The combination of high content of saponins and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) increases the formation of antibodies, the synthesis of interferon, the phagocytic activity of macrophages and neutrophils.
Due to the presence of Paraguayan flavonoids, purine alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline) and phenolic glycosides (arbutin) in Paduba, the water extract has a moderate diuretic effect. Caffeine and theophylline are inhibitors of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, localized in the apical membrane of the renal tubules and which activates the processes of hydration and dehydration of carbonic acid. In addition, caffeine slightly increases diuresis, due to the inhibition of the reabsorption of certain electrolytes in the renal tubules. The mechanism of action of flavonoids and phenolic glycosides is associated with the inhibition of transport systems of the epithelium of the renal tubules, a violation of the reabsorption of Na + ions and other ions, which contributes to their elimination. Together with ions, water is excreted according to the law of osmosis.
Studies of the antimicrobial action of the aquatic extract of the Paduba Paraguayan-Yerba Mate have been going on for a long time. Another Indians Guarani used leaves and infusion Yerba Mate for the treatment of infectious diseases and wounds. This was due to the high content of Paraguay – Yerba Mate flavonoids, tannins, phenolic glycosides, showing antimicrobial activity in Paraguay – Yerba Mate. Two researchers Tipparat Hongpattarakere and Eric A. Johnson, as a result of the conducted experiments, also note the important role of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives in the manifestation of antimicrobial action.
The antimicrobial activity of Mate in relation to:
For many years the study of the influence of the water extract of the Paradise of Paraguay – Yerba Mate on the digestive system is being conducted. It is proved that with the regular use of Yerba Mate, the time of food in the stomach and intestines is shortened. It was also noted that the bitterness (sesquiterpenes) that are part of the Holly Paraguayan – Yerba Mate bitterness (sesquiterpenes), cause an increase in the secretion of bile.
The mechanism of the action of bitterness was studied by Academician I.P. Pavlov. He was shown that the secretion of digestive glands intensifies when irritated with bitter taste buds of the oral mucosa. The action of bitterness is manifested only when eating.
Bitterness, contained in Holly Paraguay – Yerba Mate, causes a modest increase in the secretion of bile, reduce its viscosity, increase the content of cholates, and have a cholespasmolytic effect.
Since ancient times, one of the indications of the use of Paradise Paraguayan – Yerba Mate was the treatment of arthritis and rheumatic pain, due to its anti-inflammatory effect. Studies have shown that Yerba Mate’s aqueous extract is capable of inhibiting the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase responsible for the synthesis of leukotrienes (a group of substances actively involved in the development of the inflammatory process).
Metabolic pathways for the formation of eicosanoids, substances actively involved in the inflammatory process.
Water extract Yerba Mate is not able to relieve pain in rheumatism, but with regular admission, as noted by doctors, can improve the health of patients. This is explained by the anti-inflammatory effect, the absence of a blockade of the formation of prostaglandins (have anti-rheumatic effect) and a pronounced antimicrobial effect against bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, which in some cases are the cause of rheumatic fever. It is as a result of the regular application of Yerba Mate, the indigenous people of Argentina, as modern doctors admit, were less prone to this disease.